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2013年美国前20个悲情城市

2013年美国前20个悲情城市 - 2019-05-08


Forbes 评选出了2013年度的美国20个悲情城市,Most Miserable Cities。

评选标准包括以下指标:犯罪率,失业率,税率(收入税和房产税),房价变化,房屋强制拍卖比例,交通状况与平均通勤时间,天气状况,人口流动(迁出与迁入对比)。入选城市必须有多于25万9千居民的大中城市。

不出意料,位居榜首的是底特律。全国最高的犯罪率(每一千个居民10.52 件犯罪案),全国房屋均价下降最多,人口迁出比例最高,失业率,房屋强制拍卖也都位居前列。

但是芝加哥(第四)和纽约(第十)的入选,也许有些人不敢相信。芝加哥的严酷天气,较长的通勤时间和糟糕的交通状况,房产价位与拍卖比例,还有人口迁出比例,都使得芝加哥高居美国悲情城市第四位。纽约的入选主要得力于两项数据:全美最长的平均通勤时间,全美最高的税率。

还有一个令人惊讶的现象:在前十位最悲情城市当中,加州占据三位,第八位 Stockton (房屋强制拍卖,犯罪率和失业率都名列前茅,还是迄今最大的宣布破产的城市),第六位 Vallejo (房屋强制拍卖比例和失业率均名列前前茅,2008-2011年市政府宣布破产),第五位 Modesto (全美最高房屋强制拍卖比例,15%的失业率)。加州的地理位置好。气候宜人,土地肥沃,历来是美国经济最强,最先进和发达的地方。20多年前,有统计说,如果加州作为一个独立国家,其GDP可列世界第九位,硅谷更是领导了世界互联网革命。但是近些年加州出现了很多问题,经济如此强大的地方,州政府却多次传出破产的消息。最近,在州议会占绝对优势的民主党议员,又通过了以种族限制公里大学入学的SCA5法案,赤裸裸的种族主义行为,开历史倒车。在天时地利如此优越的地方,而在很多经济领域都居于全美领先地位,政府搞得如此差,应该是政客和政府官员的问题,还有政策的偏差。

底特律市政府近几年一直处于破产边缘,现在被州政府接管。从1974年开始选出第一位黑人市长,中间有35年都是黑人市长。其中一位连任20年,还有一位在市长任上被控告腐败和妨碍司法,被判入狱,最后有38件控诉成立,入狱28年。今年,一位白人商人和律师成为在黑人占多数的大城市,当选市长的第一人。

下面是全部名单:


#1 Detroit, Mich.

Violent crime in the Detroit metro was down 5% in 2011, but it remains the highest in the country with 1,052 violent crimes per 100,000 people, according to the FBI. Home prices were off 35% the past 3 years, which is the biggest drop in the U.S.


#2 Flint, Mich.

Flint has been demolishing homes as the city shrinks with residents leaving in search of jobs. Only Detroit has a higher net out-migration rate. Flint ranks third worst for violent crime, behind Detroit and Memphis.

#3 Rockford, Ill.

A three decade decline in the manufacturing base has hurt Rockford's economy and kept unemployment high. The metro’s recent 11.2% unemployment rate is one of the highest rates in the U.S. Another burden: high property tax rates.

#4 Chicago, Ill.

Chicago has passionate supporters, but residents must endure the misery of long commutes, plummeting home prices, brutal winters and high foreclosure rates. The migration rate out of Chicago is the sixth worst among the 200 largest metros.

#5 Modesto, Calif.

Foreclosures continue to plague Modesto with 6,859 foreclosure filings in 2012, according to RealtyTrac. It represents 3.8% of homes, which is the third highest rate in the U.S. Recent unemployment was 15%.

#6 Vallejo, Calif.

The city finally emerged from bankruptcy at the end of 2011 after nearly 3 years. Problems remain with high levels of foreclosures and unemployment.

#7 Warren, Mich.

Troy and Farmington Hills are part of the government-defined Warren metro division. Like Detroit, the Warren metro has seen home prices collapse--off 53% the past five years.

#8 Stockton, Calif.

Stockton became the largest U.S. city to file for bankruptcy protection last year. The city is burdened with the highest foreclosure rate in the U.S. and ranks among the five worst for unemployment and crime.

#9 Lake County, Ill.

The Chicago suburb is one of the richest counties in the U.S., as measured by per capita income. But home prices are down 29% over the past 5 years. Other drawbacks: long commutes and lousy weather.

#10 New York, N.Y.

Taxes are always a hot button issue in New York, whether it revolves around banks paying their share (rally above) or the taxes that residents face, which are the highest in the U.S. New Yorkers also rank first when it comes to the longest commutes.

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